Tips on how to use reported speech with a help of essay consultant online
This article is offered to those who have already studied Reported Speech (rules for beginners) and in it we will tell you how you can use the learned rules and use them in oral speech, and not just when doing exercises and tests.
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So, the first assignment that knowledge of the rules of indirect speech (Reported Speech) helps us solve is successful communication! Imagine that you are communicating with a native speaker or with your teacher and do not fully understand the question or do not know how to answer it. Show your competence and, in order not to drag out a pause, use indirect speech.
Question: What do you know? (fronting)
Echo question: Would you like to know what I know?
Question: Do you drive a car?
Echo question: Are you asking if I drive a car?
We particularly used simple questions in the examples to make it clearer!
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Reporting verbs and professional editing
When learning indirect speech at the level for beginners, they are usually limited to a small set of verbs: tell, say, ask, answer. However, at an advanced level, you should know other verbs that are used in the transmission of indirect speech. Let’s remember them!
- The verbs say & tell are used in the transfer of declarative sentences in indirect speech. Instead, they also use:
- explain to smb
- be worried
Example: Jane, I haven’t heard of him for ages. Jane denied that she had heard of him for ages.
- The verbs ask and answer are used when transferring interrogative sentences in indirect speech and answers. Instead, they also use:
- be interested
- want to know
- would like to know
Example: I wonder if she will call today.
III. The verb suggest is used when transferring sentences like “Let us do …” into indirect speech.
Example: Let us join the team. – I suggest joining the team. I suggest that we should join the team.
- The verbs ask and tell smbare used when transferring imperative sentences in indirect speech. Instead, they also use:
Example: Don`t go eating at the canteen, Mother said. – Mother forbade me to go eating in the canteen.
Rarely used adverbs of the time
Remember how the learned adverbs of the time change in the past tense:
- Last week
- Next year
But the adverbs of time, which are less often used in indirect speech:
- Right now – immediately
- The day after tomorrow – two days later
- In two days – two days later
- The day before yesterday – two days before
- By this time – by that time
- Before– is not changed
Complex cases of transmission of indirect speech and exceptions when using the sequence of tenses rules
You already know how the times change in indirect speech according to the rule of timing:
The table does not include the case below.
This case follows from the case: Past Simple changes to Past Perfect.
Exceptions when using timing rules:
- Times MAY remain unchanged when the time of the action is specified.
- She said, “ I began to study German in 2006.” – She said she began to study German in 2006.
- He said, “I met her when I came in the cafe just around the corner.” – He said that he met her when he was coming in the cafe just around the corner.
- When she entered the classroom, her classmate was sitting on the desk. She said that when she had entered the classroom, her classmate was sitting (had been sitting) on the desk.
- Past Simple in time subordinate clauses after when, since conjunctions MAY not change.
- Jack, “I haven’t met Mary since we divorced”. Jack said that he hadn’t met Mary since they divorced.
- John said, “Jessica waved at me when I saw her”. – John said that Jessica had waved at him when he saw her.
- Modal verbs must, should, ought to – remain unchanged.
- The verb must in indirect speech in the past tense can be replaced with the verb have to, when it expresses the need to perform an action due to circumstances.
- It is better to replace sentences with the verb should in direct speech with the verb advise.
- You should write the report. Nick advised Tom to write the report.
- We must clean our teeth every day. We knew that we must clean our teeth every day.
So, the topic “Reported Speech or Indirect speech in English” is over. It remains to complete the exercises and continue to study English further!
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